Headless Raspberry Pi setup

17 Sep 2013

SDCard setup on Mac OS X

Download raspbian here.

Connect the SDCard.

$ df -h
$ diskutil list

Look for the new device that wasn't listed last time (eg: /dev/disk2s1).

$ sudo diskutil unmount /dev/disk2s1
$ sudo dd bs=1m if=~/Downloads/2015-11-21-raspbian-jessie-lite.img of=/dev/rdisk2
$ sudo diskutil eject /dev/rdisk2

Insert SDCard in the raspberry pi then power it.

Login is pi and password is raspberry.

External References:

Optional: external HDD setup

This is an optional step if you want to run the system on an external hard drive (the SD card will only be used to boot).

Find your drive with:

$ lsusb
$ dmesg

Execute that script to setup everything:

$ git clone https://github.com/adafruit/Adafruit-Pi-ExternalRoot-Helper.git
$ cd Adafruit-Pi-ExternalRoot-Helper
$ sudo ./adafruit-pi-externalroot-helper -d /dev/sda

If you see errors like:

Error: Partition(s) on /dev/sda are being used.

Then unmount partitions:

$ mount -l
$ sudo umount /media/pi/rootfs
$ sudo ./adafruit-pi-externalroot-helper -d /dev/sda

Finally, you can reboot:

$ sudo reboot

Check setup with:

$ df -h
$ readlink /dev/root
$ ls -l /dev/disk/by-uuid
$ ls -l /dev/disk/by-label
$ mount | grep root

External References:

Optional: USB Stick setup [DEPRECATED]


So let's install raspbian on the USB stick.

$ diskutil list

Connect the USB stick.

$ diskutil list

Look for the new device that wasn't listed last time (eg: /dev/disk1).

$ diskutil unmountDisk /dev/disk1
$ sudo dd bs=1m if=~/Downloads/2014-09-09-wheezy-raspbian.img of=/dev/disk1

Eject the USB stick.

Insert the USB stick in the raspberry pi.

$ sudo fdisk -l
  Disk /dev/sda: 32.0 GB, 32015679488 bytes

Expand partition on USB Stick:

$ sudo fdisk /dev/sda

Press p:

  Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
  /dev/sda1         8192      122879       57344    c  W95 FAT32 (LBA)
  /dev/sda2       122880     6399999     3138560   83  Linux

Note the start of /dev/sda2: 122880.

Press d, type 2 and then hit return to delete the sda2 partition.

Then create a new partition (but leave 10Mb free):

  Command (m for help): n
  Partition type:
     p   primary (1 primary, 0 extended, 3 free)
     e   extended
  Select (default p): p
  Partition number (1-4, default 2): 2
  First sector (2048-62530623, default 2048): 122880
  Last sector, +sectors or +size{K,M,G} (122880-62530623, default 62530623): 62528623

The math:

  10240000 / 512 = 2000 sectors
  62530623 - 2000 = 62528623

Press w to commit changes and exit fdisk.

Reboot the raspberry:

$ sudo reboot

Resize the FS:

$ e2fsck -f /dev/sda2
$ sudo resize2fs /dev/sda2

Convert the partition table from DOS to GPT:

$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install gdisk
$ sudo gdisk /dev/sda
  GPT fdisk (gdisk) version 0.8.5

  Partition table scan:
    MBR: MBR only
    BSD: not present
    APM: not present
    GPT: not present

  Found invalid GPT and valid MBR; converting MBR to GPT format.
  you don't want to convert your MBR partitions to GPT format!

  Command (? for help): r

  Recovery/transformation command (? for help): f
  Warning! This will destroy the currently defined partitions! Proceed? (Y/N): Y

  Recovery/transformation command (? for help): w

  Final checks complete. About to write GPT data. THIS WILL OVERWRITE EXISTING

  Do you want to proceed? (Y/N): Y
  OK; writing new GUID partition table (GPT) to /dev/sda.
  The operation has completed successfully.

Now remove USB stick, then re-plug it.

$ sudo gdisk /dev/sda
  GPT fdisk (gdisk) version 0.8.5

  Partition table scan:
    MBR: protective
    BSD: not present
    APM: not present
    GPT: present

  Found valid GPT with protective MBR; using GPT.

  Command (? for help): i
  Partition number (1-2): 2
  Partition GUID code: 0FC63DAF-8483-4772-8E79-3D69D8477DE4 (Linux filesystem)
  Partition unique GUID: D7BBB26D-DD33-4333-8CF3-0AA7F3517B48
  First sector: 122880 (at 60.0 MiB)
  Last sector: 62528623 (at 29.8 GiB)
  Partition size: 62405744 sectors (29.8 GiB)
  Attribute flags: 0000000000000000
  Partition name: 'Linux filesystem'

Note the Partition unique GUID: D7BBB26D-DD33-4333-8CF3-0AA7F3517B48

$ sudo emacs /boot/cmdline.txt
  dwc_otg.lpm_enable=0 console=ttyAMA0,115200 console=tty1 root=PARTUUID=D7BBB26D-DD33-4333-8CF3-0AA7F3517B48 rootfstype=ext4 elevator=deadline rootwait
$ sudo reboot

External References:

Raspi config

$ sudo raspi-config
  • Advanced Options > Update
  • Expand Filesystem
  • Change User Password
  • Boot Options > Console
  • Internationalisation Options > Change Timezone
  • Overclock > Medium (or: Pi2)
  • Advanced Options > Hostname
  • Advanced Options > Memory Split: 0
$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install emacs23-nox
$ sudo reboot


$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get upgrade
$ uname -a
$ sudo apt-get -y dist-upgrade

SSH setup

Regenerate unique host public/private keys:

$ sudo rm /etc/ssh/ssh_host_*
$ sudo dpkg-reconfigure openssh-server

Add public key:

$ mkdir /home/pi/.ssh
$ emacs /home/pi/.ssh/authorized_keys

Add content of id_rsa.pub.

avahi/netatalk setup

Install avahi:

$ sudo apt-get install avahi-daemon
$ sudo insserv avahi-daemon

Setup conf file:

$ sudo emacs /etc/avahi/services/multiple.service


<?xml version="1.0" standalone='no'?>
<!DOCTYPE service-group SYSTEM "avahi-service.dtd">
        <name replace-wildcards="yes">%h</name>

Restart avahi daemon:

$ sudo /etc/init.d/avahi-daemon restart

Install netatalk:

$ sudo apt-get install netatalk

Can be tested with:

$ sudo apt-get install avahi-utils
$ avahi-browse -arp

External References: